E Karathanasis, R Bhavane, and AV Annapragada (2007)
Glucose-sensing pulmonary delivery of human insulin to the systemic circulation of rats.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2(3):501-13.
In an attempt to achieve post-inhalation self-regulated insulin release, we constructed a microparticle agglomerate of nano-sized liposomal particles, with the agglomeration facilitated by cross-linkages capable of cleavage by glucose. The particles exhibited a small aerodynamic diameter within the human respirable range, but a large geometric diameter that prevents macrophage uptake and clearance. Upon intratracheal instillation of the "glucose-sensitive" microparticle into the lungs of rats, hyperglycemic events triggered an acceleration of the release of insulin achieving normoglycemia shortly after "sensing" the elevated systemic glucose. This work is a demonstration of an inhalable particle with long residence times in the lungs capable of modulating insulin release based on systemic glucose levels.